Fly Lines- Cleaning and Maintenance

by Tim Flagler via Rio

” Hmm, feels nice, is it a new line ? “
” sort of, its about three years old… “

a direct quote from a course i gave last week and one that seems to repeat itself very regularly.

constantly amazed at how few fly anglers actually clean and treat they’re lines, hopefully a little encouragement followed by two detailed and well explained how-to videos will help reverse this habit and here’s why you should.

let’s start with the bad:
– casting with dirty lines just simply sucks. they make scratchy sounds as they go through rod guides. those scratchy sounds we hear are friction.
friction hinders sliding through the guides and increases friction when the line slides against the blank in-between the guides. this friction makes for jerky over-powered casting instead of the silky smooth casting which should always be our goal.
all this friction gets compounded when hauling and if the lines are sticky enough, it makes the return on a haul next to impossible and this means we introduced slack in the system when we where trying to get rid of it.
as you’ll have also guessed, all this friction greatly hinders line shooting and all this grit and gunk wears down rod guides and of course the lines themselves at remarkable rates.
see ? i told you it sucks. big time.

- dirty floating lines don’t float well, sit lower on the water surface or can actually sink, specially towards the thinner tip. this really sucks too.
the gunk that accumulated on the line prevents the surface tension thing from happening and it slowly goes under.
in the case of nymphing where we watch the line tip we don’t see it anymore and when fishing a floating fly, when we get a strike the extra ‘stick’ caused by the line tip and leader butt being underwater really helps in missed hookups because of instead of the line being instantly pulled up in a straight line from fly to rod tip, the rod end of the fly line goes upwards towards the rod and there’s a level, more or less horizontal portion (the stick) and then another downward angle between line stick and the turning fish.

multiple suck ! not only we had a harder time presenting the fly properly but also put the odds against us when its time to hook up, all ending in the inevitable dork/angst expression typically seen on anglers when this situation occurs !

ok, now for the good:
clean and treated fly lines cast wonderfully. in fact they cast better than straight-out-of-the-box lines because they aren’t treated at the factory…
take all of the negatives written above and reverse them. it’s as simple as that.
a line that’s in good shape, clean and treated flatters your casting and allows the angler to focus on the main goal: fly presentation and hook up.

Tim’s video is as always great. note all the detailed explanations and you can’t go wrong.
tip- if you have a double kitchen sink, then its even better and easier than buckets !
there’ll be a few more tips at the bottom of the post but for now here’s the vids. enjoy !

- house-hold use micro-fibre cloths work better than those little pads regardless who makes them. i always have this one on my chest pack and among a bunch of it’s other possible uses, when i’m finished fishing i retrieve all the line that’s been used through the cloth and this removes any gunk before it has time to dry on the line. it takes like five extra seconds to do this and delays trips to the sink/buckets maybe tenfold.
line rag- the hardest part is finding the right recipient but when you do, a little pad soaked in line dressing stuffed away in the chest-pack gets a gunky or slowly-sinking line tip and leader butt back in shape in a minute when on the water. just pull the line in and run it through the pads. done.
line treatment swab- and lastly, Scientific Angler’s line treatment gel is the best i’ve found and used so far regardless of fly line brand its applied to. it stays on longer and doesn’t need to be dried or wiped down again before using the line again. i’m sure Rio will forgive me…

Invisible Stripping

or, the ‘basketless stripping basket’  by Joe Mahler

some nice and simple line-management tips from Joe are on the menu today and these just might reduce a lot of swelling.
the kind of mind-bloating-swelling exasperation we sometimes get when the line gets bunched up and catches the rod guides on the final delivery shoot or simply gets caught on the ground, grass, boat, bushes, shoe laces, rocks, vest (add your favourite anything because if it simply exists, it exists to catch our lines while we’re casting… )
another more-than-nifty use of Joe’s method is on rivers where retrieved line gets sucked downstream by the current which isn’t as bad as the list above but its still a pain.
anyhow, its all good but be sure to give this a little practice at home before the big trip so’s to avoid dextrous confusion whilst fishing. enjoy !

How fly lines are made

of course there’s a lot missing but then we wouldn’t expect a line company to openly share proprietary secrets. however, this short film from Rio gives us a good and simple insight on the making of what’s the most important element in the fly casting system: the fly line.
every manufacturer will have their own variants, profiles and special ingredients that make them unique but the basic construction is the same. enjoy !

Fly Lines- Understanding Skagit and Scandinavian Shooting Heads

Demystifying Skagit and Scandinavian Shooting Heads
by Peter Charles via hooked4lifeca

once we get over the infomercial aspect and the ever-false “The Anchor loads the Rod” notion we’re left with a very good and comprehensive, straight, simple and easily understandable description for those wanting to understand modern two-handed rod shooting-head systems and incorporate them to their bag of tricks. enjoy !

Line Dancing

with Pavel Kupstov

a lot could be said about Pavel’s excellent technique but for today let’s just sit back and enjoy a little fly line ballet.

Sinking Fly Line Techniques 101

constantly surprised to hear so many anglers consider sinking lines as ‘specialty’ items or even lines they’ve never used, this new video should be able to set things straight for the neophyte who wants to expand their fishing possibilities but, the well-seasoned sinker just might pick up a thing or two as well.

once passed the rather awkward intro… the always-pleasant-to-hear Simon Gawesworth and his Rio cohorts kick in with a whole bunch of  very good info and tips and trick that can make or brake your day at the lake when fishing below the surface. enjoy !

note: not that i mean any disrespect or anything but contrary to some of the explanations, there’s absolutely nothing new or revolutionary about density compensated sinking lines nor non-stretch cores or even the hang marker. as far as i know, it seems like its the first time these markers are factory made and good on them for doing this but its an old trick of the trade stillwater anglers have been making on their own for decades. however, what may be ‘revolutionary’ is producing a combination of these three elements at the factory. good job, i can’t wait to try one out.

Sinking Fly Lines and Tips Sink Rates- Fact and Fiction

via Fly Fishing Research

if you too have ever had the strong feeling that sinking lines and tips don’t get down as advertised this article’s for you.
of course, given the myriad variables encountered in real-life fishing situations as opposed to lab environments like:
– current or it’s equivalent on stillwaters: wind
– and water temperature
– and tippet diameter and length
– and fly size and it’s buoyancy
– in the case of sink-tips if it’s attached to a floating line or sinking main line
– how hard or delicately the lines/tips land on the water
and other goodies like whether different parts of the line or tip’s diameters sink at different rates (something i didn’t see in their findings but i suspect is highly relevant)
yes, some manufacturers make density compensated lines, meaning the front of the fly line will sink faster than the back with the goal of keeping the complete line straight during the retrieve, but most sinking lines are single density.

anyhow, to spice things up even more, add to all of this a quasi-consistently ever-changing environment and probably a few other bazillion other things i’m not thinking about at the moment and it would basically be impossible for manufacturers to give us exact sink rates, but then, they could at least do those tests with the exact same things we’re buying in the package instead of shortened lengths and other non-realistic methods.

so, in the end we’re left with nothing very concrete sink-rate wise but is this really a problem ?
no, but since most of the variables mentioned above are about slowing down the sink process we’ll have to take them all into account and react accordingly instead of blindly relying on what’s written on the package, most often selecting lines or tips of a higher sink rate to eventually get the fly to what we hope is the right depth. hopefully…

if the article below tickles your funny bone be sure to click the links for descriptions of their studies, fluid dynamics studies, realistic charts, the science of sink rates and equations and other goodies. enjoy !

Sink Rate
Fly fishermen and manufacturers have long used sink rate (also called “type”) as a standard by which to compare sinking lines. Simply, sink rate is the speed at which a straight, horizontal section of line sinks in still water. For example, a type 3 sink tip sinks at 3 inches per second; a type 6 sink tip sinks at 6 inches per second.The manufacturers with whom we have spoken (Airflo, Rio, and Scientific Anglers) all measure sink rates the same way. They drop a short (1″-2″) piece of line in a tank (or tube) of water in a laboratory setting, and use sophisticated laser technology to determine the exact amount of time required for the line to sink a given distance. The advantages of this method are that it’s simple, transparent, and reproducible (doing the same test multiple times for the same line segment yields nearly identical results). However, we have found that the sink rates determined by this method overstate the true sink rate of a longer section of line — as would be used for fishing. We are grateful to Bruce Richards of Scientific Anglers (SA), who helped us test this in a sensible way. In his labs, Bruce measured the sink rates of 1″ – 2″ lengths of three of SA’s sink tips. He then shipped these same three sink tips to us. We meticulously measured the sink rates of long (10 ft) segments of these lines in a still-water swimming pool. We found that the long segments sink more slowly than the short ones by 8% to 17%.That short line segments sink faster than long ones is also predicted by fluid dynamics theory. The principle is the same in the design of aircraft wings, where theory and experiment have shown that very long, thin wings provide more lift than shorter ones. For short line segments, water flows rapidly around the ends of the line, reducing the vacuum on the high side of the line that contributes to its drag (…more on why short segments sink faster).For long (e.g. 10 ft) line segments, this “flowing around the ends” effect is negligible. In actual fishing situations, it is totally negligible because both ends of the line are connected to another line. So, while the manufacturers’ test is simple and reproducible, their measurement method itself leads to overestimation of sink rates. Jim Havstad independently reached this same conclusion — that short line segments sink faster than long ones — in his seminal study of fly line sink rates.In addition, we have noticed that in some (but not all) cases, manufacturers “type” designation deviates further from actual (long segment) sink rates than the difference in measurement methods would suggest. For example, a 109 grain, 15′  tip we tested sinks at 5.6 inches per second, even though its label says “Type 8.”To support more accurate determination of sink rates, we explain the science of sink rate. Multiple independent experiments have validated the accuracy of it’s predictions within a few percent — over many years, over many line types, and across several different experimenters. The results are simple sink rate lookup tables and also a sink rate and rule number calculator, which we publish here for the first time. For any given line diameter and grain weight, you can simply look up its sink rate in a table or calculate it with an on-line calculator. Such calculations are exact, in the sense that they are determined entirely by known laws of fluid dynamics and known physical constants. (Working through the sink rate equations is not for the faint of heart, but we provide them for those who wish to understand the theory or to program their own sink-rate calculator.)

a new Twist on Twists.

or, how to very easily untwist your fly line by Zack Dalton of Rio via Gink and Gasoline

oh, so simple and oh, so easy and oh so, feck, why didn’t i think of that ?!

Zack’s demonstration is so good there’s nothing to add there. i do however want to expand a bit more as to why fly lines twist. there’s 3 reasons brought up in the video, let’s take a closer look at them.

1-  i need to be honest, point 1: ‘fly size/wind resistance to the fly’ doesn’t make a lot of sense. this would require such an amazingly unbalanced fly/leader/fly line combination and repeatedly casting it that it’s really hard to imagine happening in real. sure, twisting does indeed happen with certain flies but it’s the leader that becomes twisted and tangles first, looking something like a messy bird’s nest. it’s pretty safe to say the angler, getting absolutely nowhere with this and seeing this mess would stop and untangle long before the lighter, thinner and flexible balled-up twisted leader would work it’s way back and have any effect on the heavier, thicker, and stiffer fly line.

- Zack’s reason 2 is connected to and is in sequence to reason 3 so we’ll come to that later.

2- reason ‘3’ (hmmm, this is starting to get confusing… )  is the big one and it has to do with casting in different planes. casting in different planes means that the fly line isn’t being cast perfectly straight over the rod tip in both back and forward casts. casting over the rod tip doesn’t necessarily mean a purely vertical overhead cast either, the casting plane can be at any angle. if one casts perfectly over the rod tip, fly line twists don’t happen.
an easily understood example of casting in different planes in the aerial cast family is the Elliptic, Oval or falsely-known-as Belgium cast. the back-cast is performed to the side and the front cast is done by casting overhead. the very same principle applies to the roll-cast/spey family because you can’t successfully cast these with the D-loop directly below the rod, the anchor needs to be to the side.

so, what happens is the line gets a half or so twist with every false or complete casting cycle and the half twists in the line that we’ll find between the stripping guide and reel start to add up quickly and this brings us to reason 2.

3- if we cast to the reel at every delivery (the line goes tight from its tip end all the way to the reel, there’s often a little ‘bump’ feeling) the line gets the chance to completely untwist before it lands on the water. the twist gets pulled out while in the air. there isn’t this ‘inert’ length of line between the line hand or pile on the water/ground/stripping basket/whatever and the reel.
if we have too much line out of the reel for that specific fishing distance, the twists remain coiled up between the rod’s stripping guide and the reel and those twists continue to increase in numbers as the casting goes and if we attempt to shoot line, the twists catch on the first thing they can. usually it’s the stripping guide of the rod but it could be anything anywhere around the line’s path and of course the cast is screwed up and if you’re lucky you might even get a ‘wind’ knot from recoil !

note- it might seem like i’m saying that since it leads to a problem, casting out of plane is wrong. it most definitely isn’t. it’s a basic part of most casting styles and it’s a very safe bet to state that 99% of casters do not cast their lines exactly over the rod tip, myself included. once again, i simply wanted to explain the causes.
line twist at one point or another is simply inevitable and just a part of fly fishing/casting but thanks to great tips like Zack’s, at least one of our problems just got a whole lot easier to live with.

Hi, I’m Stanley and I’ll be shattering your dreams today.

“Have a good look at me and smile because it’s probably the last time you’ll look at me without wanting to throw me away.”

Stanley the Enemy

how many times have you heard the gleeful chant “I just cast 30m/99 ft !!!” ? (with as an example the average line of 27m/90ft plus a 9′ leader) and that person believes the fluff-fly is actually that far from their feet ?
well, i’ve heard it a lot but since Stanley was usually missing from the equation, my reply tends to be a polite smile and maybe a “far-out !” for encouragement all the while knowing they’re usually 20 or so % off.

- with the average angler, in most cases the above distance once Stanley’d might be something around 25m at best.
– with an experienced caster (in this case meaning someone who has good to great control of their cast) that distance might be around 27-28m.
– and a distance competitor maybe between 28 and 29m.
please take notice of the ‘maybe’s‘ and ‘might be’s‘ above. there are too many countless variables involved to reach definite conclusions. however, my point here was to demonstrate ballpark proportions for the three groups of casters.

as can be expected, the one’s who regularly practice distance casting will be the most consistent and their casts will go furthest but there is a common denominator to the different levels: no one is actually reaching 30m. because fly lines simply don’t fly out and land all straight, taught and perfect. (or at least it’s so rare that it’s basically a freak incidence when/if it happens)
with our 30m example, to get to that distance consistently would mean being able to cast much further consistently and then ‘holding-back’ to reach the 30m smoothly,  precisely and with straight line layout: actions that are extremely hard to manage when trying to cast ‘all-out’.

of course (and thankfully), most fishers/casters couldn’t care less about exact distances, so this all is just a reminder of a common phycological state/belief  that things aren’t always as they seem.
thanks to friends like Mel Krieger who stated “The distance between your head and your hand can be a long way” and not-so friends like Stanley who likes to slap our egos once in a while, in the end both will put us back on the right track and make us work a little harder to live up to our expectations.
if you want to cast further and don’t have a tape measure, get one. as stated above, you’ll spend most of your time wanting to destroy it but at the same time, deep inside you’ll be happy to have this new friend and this one always tells the truth.

Distance Fly Casting seen from Above(a little nudge in the ribs to all my distance buddies… :wink:)

related articles

 

Barrio Switch Fly Line

just out and designed to do everything listed below very-very well, i’ll add that as an added bonus it also brings a smile to every cast.
after playing with one of the prototypes for the last several months that last part is indeed subjective but that’s what really sums it up to me.

from Mike Barrio’s online page:Barrio Switch

The Barrio Switch floating fly line is a full floating line designed for two handed Spey and overhead use on Switch rods.

Many Switch lines on the market are sold as lines for both one and two handed casting, thus being a little light for two handed use and too heavy on a long rod to be comfortably managed single handed.

The Barrio Switch features a compound rear taper similar to our SLX single handed line, this helps to produce sharp controllable loops from dead line roll casts and allows more line to be carried into the D loop when we have space and the need arises. The head length to the colour change is approximately 30ft on the Switch and up to 6ft can be overhung for long range casts where required.

Barrio Switch Lines are designed to work well with poly leaders or 10 to 15ft heavy butted tapered salmon leaders. With the right leader set up, these lines will delicately present a micro tube on a long leader in low summer conditions, yet will also carry “heavier gear” for fishing bigger waters, high flows on spate rivers, or bouncing flies at depth for Pacific species.

The 7/8 and 8/9 lines will carry fast sinking 10ft salmon poly leaders, lengths of “T” tip material and moderately sized copper or brass tubes straight from the box, however if your fishing dictates that fast tips and big flies are usually the order of the day, then the line can be cut back by up to 18 inches from the tip.

Our 5/6 line will carry any density of trout poly leader up to 10ft in length and the 6/7 will carry 6ft to 8ft salmon poly leaders in any density and short “T” tips, plus long tapered leaders for fishing small flies to spooky fish in thin calm water.

Target head weights:
Switch 5/6 – 340 grains (approx 22 grams)
Switch 6/7 – 380 grains (approx 24.5 grams)
Switch 7/8 – 425 grains (approx 27.5 grams)
Switch 8/9 – 470 grains (approx 30.5 grams)

* Please note that our fly line profile diagrams do not include information regarding any compound tapers that we may have included within the profiles and that the dimensions may also vary for each individual line weight.


since i get asked all the time: Barrio fly lines are not available in any store but only through Mike’s online shop. not going through middlemen explains why they are all at more than reasonable prices and those prices include shipping anywhere in the World.
they are all highest quality premium fly lines more often than not better than any of the big-name brands in their respective category.
click the image to access the Barrio Fly Line page.

related articles

fitting into tight spaces

by Lee Cummings

over the last few years and among a whole lot of other things, Lee’s been doing a lot of research on shooting heads and more particularly, short, mini and micro heads to be used in the tightest of areas where other lines can’t deliver (pun intended), such as this little seatrout stream in northern England. Lee C's tiny seatrout stream

sure, the need for these is situation-dependant but it does give us the possibility to fish in areas we might generally pass. (and if we pass them there’s a good chance other anglers do it as well, meaning that fish who aren’t comfortable in high-pressure areas will happily congregate there)

without going into the micro-short, the set up below directly inspired by the Skagit school is a very good example of out of the box thinking even though it actually comes straight of a box without any cutting up, weighing, measuring or other fancy finagling. taking the Skagit concept and scaling it all down gives this, and that’s a good this !

“This awesome little set up is handy for fishing the tightest of the tight when it comes to available casting space.
The head in this example compromises of a 5ft Rio floating Skagit cheater coupled with the 1.5″ per second 15ft sink tip that came with the Rio Skagit system.
The running line is simple mono so as to offer minimum resistance and maximum range to this super short and deadly fishing shooting head.”

related articles

fly casting
spey casting
fly lines

Fly Line Selection: Head lengths, weight distribution and other goodies

continuing with the Fly Line series, today’s gem comes to us from Lee Cummings.LC Triangle SL Gathering

“One of the questions I normally ask a client whilst setting up his/her own equipment is “may I ask what line you are currently using there?” and secondly “what is the head length ?”

These are not trick questions, I just simply wish to learn about the clients mindset as to why they chose that line, or why it was recommended to them. Quite often the client remembers the name of the line manufacturer and even the model name and its AFFTA classification number, but there the knowledge of it often ceases.”

“If a line of inappropriate and excessive head length has been purchased, the angler “after some frustrations” does the sensible thing and only false casts out to a length which they can manage, sadly the outer most reach of their fishing is regulated by a head length issue right there.”

and that’s just a few snippets i hope will wet your appetite for more.

if you’ve ever gone out and bought a well reputed fly line and wondered why it wasn’t living up to your expectations you’ll find some very important thoughts in Lee’s highly recommends article. enjoy !

Getting Head Smart


related articles

Fly Lines: Taper Designs

with the hope the following article will help clear out a few ideas on fly line selection and since there’s been some recent comments regarding the use of level lines…, here’s an introductory excerpt on the hows and whys of fly lines tapers from Bruce Richards‘ seminal book Modern Fly Lines via Virtual Fly Casting.
as a reminder, Bruce was head line designer at Scientific Anglers for over 30 years. we can consider him to be the ‘father of modern fly lines’, “What Bruce doesn’t know about flylines, probably isn’t worth knowing. In fact some of what Bruce *does* know about flylines you probably wouldn’t want to know either.”

“The primary purpose of the front taper of the fly line is to allow proper delivery of the fly and leader. The taper from the belly of the line to the tip acts to reduce the mass of the line. As the loop of any fly line travels through the air, the mass of the moving part of the line decreases because that part becomes shorter. In tapered lines it decreases even more because the line becomes smaller towards the tip. This increases acceleration, resulting in greater wind resistance and greater energy dissipation, and therefore a more delicate delivery.

Obviously, heavy and wind resistant flies offer more resistance to the fly line than light, small flies. Lines with long front tapers have less mass in the front section of the line than lines with shorter front tapers. Less mass means earlier acceleration, earlier dissipation of energy, and a more gentle, less powerful delivery which will effectively deliver small, light flies, like most trout flies. Lines with short front tapers dissipate energy less efficiently, resulting in a more powerful “turnover”, suitable for the heavier, wind resistant flies usually used for bass or saltwater fishing.

Casting into the wind increases the wind resistance the line encounters, and more energy is dissipated from the line than in calm-air or downwind casts. Lines with shorter front tapers, which dissipate energy less efficiently, work better for most anglers casting into the wind. When all else is equal, lines with longer tapers deliver less powerfully than lines with shorter tapers. It is the actual line weight that determines the range of fly sizes that can be cast effectively. A light line (2 to 5- weights) with a short, powerful taper is not going to throw big bass bugs well, because the line is just to light to carry the energy necessary to overcome the resistance offered by a large bug.

It should be mentioned that the tapered leaders tied to the end of fly lines continue the dissipation of casting energy. If you have ever cast a line without a leader, you probably noticed it did not cast well. Lines are designed to be cast with leaders. A properly designed line will have just the right amount of energy left at the end of the cast to turn over the leader and deliver the fly. If a line is cast without a leader, it will ‘kick’ and be most difficult to cast. Lines are designed to be cast with a particular leader commonly used with that size type of line. A light fly line will be overpowered by a heavy saltwater leader; the line will not have enough energy to turn it over properly. By the same token, a light trout leader won’t be able to handle the large amount of energy a heavy saltwater line passes to it, and the line will ‘kick.’ Casting a level line with no front taper demonstrates very clearly how tapering effects the way a line casts. Even with the correct tapered leader, level lines ‘kick’ when casting because thy have so much undissipated energy left when the line straightens. To avoid the kick the caster must modify his or her casting stroke to reduce the amount of casting energy by slowing the line and by casting with a larger, more wind-resistant loop.

Level lines turn over very abruptly and land on the water forcefully because the energy dissipates poorly because the tip is just plain heavy without the line taper. Sinking lines are said to ‘hinge’ when cast; there is a significant change in the density where the floating and sinking parts of the line join. If cast correctly, a properly designed sinking-tip line does not ‘hinge’ but rather ‘kicks’ just as the level line does. The tip of a sinking line is very heavy and dissipates energy poorly. To compound the problem, lines with very high density tips are very small in diameter and offer less wind resistance even when the do finally accelerate. The key to casting these lines effectively is the same for level lines, namely to open the casting loop and slow the line down as much as possible.
The ability of the caster is important to consider. Lines with longer, more delicate tapers require good loop control and may be difficult for an inexperienced caster to use. There are lines on the market specifically geared toward beginning casters, lines with shorter tapers that dissipate energy less quickly during the cast. Most novices cast with relatively wide, open loops that are quite wind-resistant. If a line with a long, delicate taper is cast with this kind of loop, too much energy is dissipated and the line and leader will not straighten. With a shorter, more powerful taper, effective deliveries can be made even with less than perfect technique.
Instructors may often overlook the fly line a student is casting with. Ask the student what line it is they are using. This may be especially important when dealing with advanced or intermediate casters.
For example, many intermediate casters attempting to cast a line to 75 or 85 feet are simply unaware that in the case of a Weight Forward line, they must learn to control and understand what “overhang” is, and how it will affect their ability to control the line for longer casts. Overhang is simply the position of the rod tip in relation to the distance between the running line and the end of the rear taper. While experienced casters can control lots of overhang the intermediate caster should not attempt to cast with more than 2 or 3 feet of overhang outside of the rod tip. It is highly recommended that an approximate overhang point be marked with a permanent magic marker allowing the student/ caster a consistent “pick up” point that will promote greater efficiency when learning to cast a longer line. Again we turn to “Modern Fly lines” for a detailed description of why understanding “overhang” is critical.


“A fly line is controlled by the tip of the fly rod, the angler’s last point of contact. The rod tip moves the part of the line that is in the rod tip, and that part of the line moves the rest of the line. For the rod-tip part of the line to move and control the rest of the line effectively, it should have enough mass to move the line connected to it.
A good caster can cast effectively with running line in the tip, however, if the line is kept very straight during the cast. Energy can be transmitted through the straight, small- diameter running line to the head of the line. But it usually desirable to choose a line with a belly that will insure the belly is at least very close to the rod tip during overhead casting, roll casting, or mending.”
In closing it is important to note that it is the fly line that delivers the fly to the target. Understanding how fly lines transmit energy to deliver the fly to the target is predicated on a firm understanding of taper design.

related articles