Fly Casting- Santa’s Underpowered Curve

if like most people you’ve always wondered what Santa Carlos (Azpilicueta) looks like when he’s fly casting here you go.SantaCarlos' Underpowered 180° Curve

often referred to as a good upstream presentation cast, the Underpowered Curve goes directly to the bottom of my list of actual casts to use. even if the final line layout seems really good from a theoretical point of view we’re throwing a whole lot of line directly over the fish whilst false casting and at final presentation and we’re left with an enormous, even ridiculous amount of slack to attempt to tighten up if we didn’t put off the fish and managed to get a strike. if we don’t get a strike, the whole leader and all that line will pass over the fish on its way back downstream before we can pick up and cast again and if that doesn’t put off the fish then its a really dumb fish not worthy of being caught !
accuracy wise, its also probably the most difficult cast to get just right in any repeatable manner even in ‘ideal’ conditions. any kind of wind severely compromises its success. in a sense, its one to keep in your bag of tricks as a last-resort presentation. at best.

none of that sounds very good, right ? but here’s the but and the however: just as with the underpowered Controlling Casting Stroke Force (please read or reread as both articles are directly connected), the Underpowered Curve is a more than excellent manner to learn to use the correct amount of force in your other casts. just as with the overhead version: “practising to cast lines that don’t turn over completely and ‘relearning’ to add a little more force, just what’s necessary to get the job done as we go along. this is an additive method. we start with ‘not enough’ and add-on little by little until it’s’just right’.  it’s quite easy to control because adding-on seems to correspond better to human nature than subtracting; we tend to ‘want more’ as opposed to ‘want less’ is equally valid and productive and might even be considered as the next step, or part II of the overhead drill as it’s trickier.
we need to adopt a slower casting rhythm while casting off to the side in a lower plane all the while keeping line, leader and fluff from hitting the ground. on the delivery cast, the underpowered bit needs to be controlled very precisely. although we can’t push strings or in this case fly lines and this will get the physics geeks tsk-tssssking, it helps to think of it as if we where pushing the rod leg only. (i know, that might be a weird way to visualise the motion but it works for me and hopefully for you too)

as in the gif, don’t forget to ‘kill the cast’ by immediately lowering the rod tip to prevent loop unrolling. be sure to try the exact same cast with and without lowering the rod tip to see how it greatly affects line layout/turnover.
lastly, similar to the overhead drill, the Underpowered Curve also teaches an important aspect that’s rarely brought up; varying the casting force between the back cast and the front cast (or vice-versa). a typical but non-conclusive example of this casting force variance would be when fishing with a strong tail wind. we’ll need  to have a higher line speed on the BC going into the wind, requiring more force and a greater casting arc and less speed, force and arc on the FC where the wind will help push it out.

since practicing without any kind of target is generally pointless, as with the overhead drill, place little targets or reindeer here and there in front of you and place the unrolled loop over them.
even if it’s just a few minutes, do yourself the favour of including both drills every time you’re out practicing. these are seemingly strange and quirky things to do but they really pay off. i guarantee.
whether or not you decide to don the Santa suit is up to you but keep in mind that it would make the occasion that much more special.

video graciously provided by Carlos Azpilicueta. thanks buddy !

post note- i’ve always wondered what the person strolling by in the background of the gif was thinking as they saw this…

Fly Casting Practice- Controlling Casting Stroke Force

experience tells me that apart from improper wrist control, the second most common difficulty many fly casters struggle with is force application throughout the stroke and to be more precise, they use too much force. way too much.

there are several ways to create tailing loops and they all have to do with the rod tip rising after dipping below the standard straight or slightly convex tip path in one manner or another but i’m firmly convinced as well as many of my instructor colleagues that the main cause is improper; too early or too much force application and often both are combined.
leaving aside for the moment that rod rotation (where most of the force is applied and the rod tip is going its fastest) should be done at the end of the stroke, today’s casting drill tip is about force quantity and to understand the point of the topic i’ll ask you to consider these two questions:
1) how many times have you seen a fellow angler drive their fly into the water surface (when that wasn’t the intended presentation) or make tailing loops or have the fly kick back or hook to one angle or another before landing ?
2) how many times have you seen a fellow angler cast a pile at the end of the line when they wanted a straight presentation ?
i’ll be very generous with no. 2 and give it an approximate 10%. even if that approximation is just a roundabout figure its quite obvious that there’s an overall higher tendency leaning towards the ‘more than necessary/too much’.

now, there are two methods to adjust how much force is being used:
– the first is the standard ‘do your normal cast’ and try to apply less force until its all nice and smooth with super control.
this a subtractive method. it may work and there’s nothing wrong with it but its a hard way as its much more difficult to ‘hold back’ and ‘unlearn’ an engrained movement, specially when its something we’ve been doing for a long time.
– the other method consists of doing the exact opposite, practising to cast lines that don’t turn over completely and ‘relearning’ to add a little more force, just what’s necessary to get the job done as we go along.
this is an additive method. one that’s quite easy to control because adding-on seems to correspond better to human nature than subtracting; we tend to ‘want more’ as opposed to ‘want less’ and its a method that works very well for people of all levels in all the various types of fly casting whether it be close/middle/long range, stream to sea, little to big flies and single or double handed.

since years ago i had been working on an almost exactly the same presentation cast -the Dunkeld Dump– (named after the city in Scotland where i first demonstrated this cast to a group of fellow casting geeks) and of course using it a lot for river fishing but it was only last year that i realised what a gem this was as a practice routine on its own when friend, colleague and super-caster Aitor Coteron wrote this article that set off so many lightbulbs: To straighten or not to straighten. That is the question.

here’s a slightly different full-on angle of this drill from one of last year’s casting-geek meets in Spain.

to conclude, just as mentioned in the link, i highly recommend doing this exercise at every practise session, preferably at the beginning.
to add some variety and improve one’s force control while still working on accuracy, a great thing to do is place cones, tennis balls or whatever at different distances, even in a zig-zag formation and place the piles on the targets in sequence. dump and enjoy !


Fly Casting- The next Level ?

as the Advanced Fly Casting Demonstration title alludes to, is this advanced casting or not ? well, yes and no. let’s start with the no.

the no-casters will be quick to point out that all this fiddly-fancy rod waving is completely unnecessary; its just ‘trick casting’ to impress the peanut gallery which would probably scare off fish anyhow.
fine. assuming that the angler has decent control of their rod/line/leader/fly combo and can place the fly to the intended target with reasonable regularity, then that’s probably good enough for them. after all, a good chocolate cake doesn’t really need a scoop of ice cream or sauce to make the cake any better does it ?

well, i’m the kind that likes good ice cream and good sauce on good chocolate cake. they enhance the experience, offer a variety of tastes with the overall result of having a more complete dessert. ditto for fly casting.
now, i know very well that all this extra fiddly-fancy rod waving in itself isn’t going to lead to any more landed fish and to be honest, i’ll refrain from doing all this excessive stuff when actually fishing but !, its all going to make me a more efficient caster if i know how to do it at practice time plus, its a lot of fun and fun makes casting sessions a lot more productive than doing simple, basic movements over and over again.
but why ? casting as Klaus displays in the video needs a highly developed sense of spacial and temporal awareness and the ability to act/move very precisely on several planes in sequence with different rhythms and speeds all the while controlling varying degrees of slack in the line. in real-world situations, these capabilities allow the caster to improvise in real time, a little plus considering all the continually changing variables that happen when we fish.
this is hard-core multi-dimensional traverse wave casting and one that needs visualisation before and during the casts to not mess up ! very much akin to Zen-like activities, in a sense, movement needs to happen before thought or maybe more precisely, movements need to happen based on pre-visualisation and not a more ‘traditional’ step-by-step as-it-happens method. i don’t know if that makes sense but i can’t find a better way to describe it with words.

so, is this Advanced Fly Casting ? you bet ! but when/if acquired, we can consider it a hidden skill set that pops up when needed most, when situations get tricky and we still want to stay in the game while pleasing one’s self and not the peanut gallery. whether we chose or not to get to this level is a personal choice and most definitely non-necessary. at worst its eye candy but its a lovely candy that won’t make us fat like the ice cream, sauce and cake… enjoy !

Fly Casting- Pussy Galore and thoughts on Presentation Cast Accuracy

just the other day, a student asked me a very interesting question (and the kind i love to hear !):
“How can we be dead-on accurate when doing slack-line presentation casts ?”
well, the simple answer is we can’t, or at least not with any predictable consistency the competent caster might have when using straight-line presentations.

to further the simple answer, the reason we can’t be as consistent is that a line with slack in it isn’t under tension and therefore the caster isn’t completely in control of it no matter how experienced she/he might be.
the conundrum of this situation is:
– at all times we want to be as accurate as possible. if we can’t place the fly in a manner that will entice a fish we’re simply not fishing and if we do manage to hook up its just a matter of luck, not one based on our skills.
– including slack in our presentations, although not always necessary, is a fantastic way to catch a lot more fish. it’s that dead-drift thing with ummm, a turbo. sort of.
– any kind of wind from any direction severely compromises the outcome of any slack line presentation. the line/leader/fly gets pushed or pulled from the intended target.
– those are just a few examples but the sum of them mean we’re working in an unfavourable situation even if we have faith in our abilities.

however ! as bleak and hopeless as some of that may sound its really not hopeless at all, it just takes a little determination and maybe a lot of practice.
here’s an example filmed at least five years ago starring Pussy Galore !
a little info before the film.
– the idea here was to present the fluff in front of her cute little nose, upstream of the trout as it where.
– second goal was to try to entice her by using a ridiculously long, superfluous length of line to attempt this. once stretched out straight, the fluff might have fallen a bit short of the yellow ring in the background, that’s about twice the length from my feet to PG. i would never fish this way with so much slack mainly because its unproductive and pointless but the idea was to push the limits and see how much line control i could still manage even at this short range.

– out of nine casts, six where ‘probable’ takes (had that been a feeding fish and not some over-exherted cat that had been chasing fluff for the last hour), the others fell short or behind her head.

i used to do this kind of exercise all the time, basically every day. i’m pretty sure i wouldn’t get anywhere near six ‘probables’ today because i haven’t practiced this in a long time and that leads to the last part of the simple answer which connects to a saying i like to mindlessly repeat: practice doesn’t make perfect but it makes better, and this better and not perfection is the goal with real-fishing-situation presentation casts.
all we can do is assess the casting/fishing situation of the moment the best we can, adapt to it and put the fluff in front of PG’s cute little nose because we’ve worked a lot on our ca(s)ts while nevertheless accepting that the chances of success are reduced. besides, it makes the catch that much more worthwhile and memorable when i works.

fun and games

a little bent-over from my recent trip last June in Malaysia.  following our casting demos where a whole slew of casting games to keep the attendees entertained while waiting out the thunderstorm.
this one’s rules where easy: feet behind the first plate, curve the line around the blue basket and place the yarn leader tip on the plate to the right in three tries.
just as in real-life fishing, nobody told me i had stand up. we do what we have to to try to get the job done…


image via Juan Wei and SportFishin.Asia

Presentation Fly Casts- Getting more action out of your flies through line control

by Phil Monahan via Orvis News

its been a loooooong time since i’ve read an article with so much insightful, out of the box, and all around great line/fly control tips. woW !

i had to include this in TLC’s Presentation Casts category because P-casts are about different manners to present our flies fly but ! the lazy caster needn’t worry, apart from rolls and a reach cast that every single fly angler should know anyway, these tips aren’t really about casting in itself but more about controlling and affecting a fly’s movement after delivery through simple but well thought-out mends.
mostly intended for sunken nymphs and streamers we’ll also see that certain floating flies can really benefit from these techniques as well. as noted, we’ll maybe first think of skittering caddis but lets also add mice, frogs, terrestrial insects and even slithering snake imitations and other whatnot critters to the list.
worth noting as well is, since the casting part is reduced to a minimum, all of these methods will be a great asset in low light and dark situations whether your using a single or double-handed rod.


“But once you’ve learned to use line mends to render your drifts lifeless, it’s time to think about using these same concepts to give patterns life—to activate the presentation. Rather than counteracting the effects of current on your line, you can instead use this tension to make a streamer dart erratically without pulling it out of a good lie, make a nymph rise in the water column, or work flies into spaces that you could never cast to. Using the current and your line to work the fly means you can keep it in the strike zone longer, fishing slower, or make multiple presentations within the same drift.” and that’s just for starters…

be sure to click the image for the complete article that’s sure to open a few eyes and help think out of the box.
this stuff’s the Shiz, enjoy !

Fly Casting- the Snap-Snatch cast

by Tim Rajeff

another groovy casting tip from Tim: the Check Your Fly snap or what i’ve been calling the Snap-Snatch. a quick in, quick out solution to not only check knots and hook point sharpness but also to change flies. fast, efficient and fun, it’s all good.
tip: just as Tim does, reach for and catch the tippet instead of the fly. tippets don’t have sharp hook points !
(and of course wear glasses !!! )

A. K. Best’s Casting Techniques

via MidCurrent

” IT USUALLY TAKES ME three or four casts to finally put the fly over the fish where I’d like it to land. But I’m a believer in presenting the first few casts to a spot that will be at least a foot or two to my side of the fish. If the fish is really hungry, it’ll often charge over to grab the fly. If it doesn’t, I can gradually work the fly in closer to the fish’s holding spot and get better floats as I adjust the angle of my casting arm and the power of the cast for more dramatic left hooks. “

no “I’ll just fling it out haphazardly and see what happens” -type fishing here.
this is strategy and it’s trout hunting.

from thoughts on fly presentation-

to retrieval techniques-

there’s a wealth of information and food for thought for any angler wanting to have more fun on the water and increase their fish catches.

click either pic to access the full article. enjoy !

take a break

out early this morning at the fishery for some presentation casts instruction with two visiting fly fishing journalists. normally, spinning 70 km wind gusts can ruin the day when the idea is to work on slack line presentations but weather doesn’t come with and on/off switch.
the course turned into a ‘using the wind to your advantage’ workshop, playing with the idea that fly lines and leaders have different masses, profiles and will therefore react differently to the wind, putting emphasis on the line with the expectancy*  that the wind will create the desired curve of the leader.
during a break i spotted this little fellow, grabbed a rigged rod and placed the 18′ leader downwind at a 90° angle to the line, letting it all drift with the wind to its hungry mouth. my two friends where quite impressed but not half as much as myself.
anyone with a certain experience of P-casts knows full well that when they’re combined with several elements, some more tangible than others, they quickly become a hit or miss activity: it’s either a Royal Hook-Up or a Royal Fuck-Up.
this one turned out well, the ‘fish element’ made it all make sense, further solidifying, enhancing their interest in practicing and researching their presentation abilities, which was the whole point of this little exercise. mission accomplished.

* <that feeling of optimistic expectancy that fills theatergoers fly fishers as they wait for the curtain trout to rise> Merriam-Webster

thumbs up ! (and down and left and round & round)

friends, this is Mac Brown.
what he’s pantomiming for us is rod twist through both translation and rotation during the forward stroke.
pretty extreme i’ll agree but this is what presentation cast research and development brings. simply put, if we want straight line layouts we pretty much have to have rectilinear movements throughout the cast.
when we chose to deviate from the straight and narrow we’ll have to move our bodies correspondingly but it’s not just physical, it doesn’t happen if we have a rigid approach and thoughts about casting.

Mac is one of the most respected casters/instructors there is. when he talks people listen. he’s so far out of the box that i’m sure he’s forgotten one even existed, he and a very few others around the world have realized and fully embrace the concept that there’s a lot more possibilities to casting  fly lines than what even the most contemporary schools of casting can offer. sure, there’s probably limits but we believe those limits can be stretched and twisted.
it’s not pretense or hippy-shit talk. it’s simply curiosity and opening up to various possibilities in space and time and how we, the line and the rod fit in as a whole.
eventually, when the common perception of them as ‘circus casts’ wears off we’ll be left with a broader vision of casting possibilities. so much for the straight and narrow !

Fly Casting- Simple Curve Casts

by Carl McNeil of On the Fly Productions

like the title says, here’s two methods of of presenting the line with a curve near the end of it. as Carl mentions, the curves can be used to go around obstacles but they can also be used as we would with curve mends to reduce or increase drag during the drift on flowing water or when using the wind to drift our flies on stillwaters. and those are just a few examples, the world of presentation casts is about using your imagination to adapt to the situations at hand.

i’ll most certainly agree that the Underpowered curve is a tricky one to use while fishing and even if there’s no wind. practiced as we may, being accurate consistently just doesn’t happen and even if we get it right, we’re left with an enormous amount of slack that needs to be tightened up if there’s a strike…
however,  i really recommend practicing the Under-powered curve as an exercise in power application control. since most people over-power their casts, this one teaches them to do the opposite !

the Over-powered curve cast is closely related to the Tuck cast but we’ll notice that the difference between the two isn’t just about the plane in which they are performed.
the Tuck is performed with the fly leg parallel (over) with the rod leg and with the Over-powered the fly leg swings under the rod leg. we can see this clearly on the head-on shots.

next time you’re out practicing give these a try and you’ll see how easy it is to make these so-called ‘trick-casts’. if you do them, say, in a yard with bushes and other obstacles (and better yet a cat !) you’ll get the feel for their purpose right away while having fun.

try different casting planes and try to remember that even though it’s called ‘over-powered’ it does say ‘hit it like a brute’ :mrgreen:

Fly Casting- the Bow and Arrow cast

my friend and fellow casting/fishing instructor Jim Williams has summed this subject up so well through this wonderful article that there’s absolutely nothing i could add.
(except, read it ! ) enjoy.

click the pic !

Fly Casting- Bucket Ca(s)t

this is my special casting friend, Pussy Galore.

some people don’t like cats and for the life of me i can’t figure that one out.
they’re soft and furry, they catch mouses that might come into your house and steal your cheese. they don’t smell, they don’t bark, they act silly and are part of a select group of superior beings simply because they won’t do anything that they don’t feel like doing.

anyhow, i’m not going to try to convince anyone that they should get a cat to practice fly casting (although you obviously should… ) so i’ll just tell you about the fun that the two of us have when out around the house. bonus is that it’s not just about fun but also improving our casting and fishing skills.

PG loves this game and as soon as she sees me pick up a rod, eagerly comes trotting outside. a few purrs and squeaks later, and she’s all psyched-up for playing.
cats just can’t resist playing with fluffy things and lines and since we’re dealing with fluff and flylines, it all falls into place. see ?

alright now, so what’s so special about practicing with a cat ?
well, cats are a lot more interesting than the usual target ring or beer can.
they have personalities and whims. rings and cans are just stupid and lay there.
cats move. they go in places where no beer can would dare to.

this is very interesting for us because when Pussy goes underneath the car or on the other side of a bush or anywhere else around our little place in the woods, these areas represent what become to us stream-side, often hard to reach places to present our flies to properly. seems to me that it’s pretty rare to find good fishing spots that aren’t filled with obstacles of some sort, so the more we learn to deal with these obstacles, the better fishermen we will be.

cats try to catch the fluff both on the ground and in the air.

rings have a very hard time doing this. cats don’t.

you can even practice striking as with a fish but you’ll have to do it ‘backwards’. that is, the idea is to not let the cat catch the fluff but on the contrary, snatch it out of its paws before they start chewing on it.
they’re very fast and you have to be even faster.
funny thing is that before they can chew away at the fluff they first have to catch it with their paws, so it’s trapped between the ground and their cute little feet.
to chew it the paw needs to be lifted and if there’s tension on the line, it pops away.
cats rarely smile, and here’s one occasion where they most definitely don’t.
this is a very good way to practice striking in different manners.
the usual rod lift, but also the strip-strike, rolly-pully, scissor strike, rolls and snaps all find their usefulness here and since practice makes better, it all leads to more hook-ups when on the water.
by the way, once in a while it’s a good thing to let them ‘win’ so as not to hurt their feelings.

cats, if you look at them in the right way can actually turn into black furry trouts. just like trout (or whatever other fish), it’s best to approach and cast to them when they aren’t looking your way. so when she turns around to check out something that only cats can see, it’s a good time to practice fancy presentation casts that get the fluff to her attention without lining her.
lining a fish/cat means putting the line or leader over the cat/fish. this scares fish and is one of the best ways to put them down.
cats aren’t as easily spooked as fish but you’ll definitely see a reaction of some sort because you’ll be disturbing their ‘special moment’.
rings and cans are rather indifferent to being lined. not much to learn from them in this regard.

again, just like what we try to achieve on the water, we can do with the house fur-ball and without getting our feet wet.
cats are smaller than rings but bigger than beer cans. this means that you need to be more accurate than with rings. nobody really casts at beer cans so lets just forget i ever mentioned them in the first place…

it’s fun to try to put the leader between her ears or placing the fluff on her head. she thinks it’s a bug or something and twitches her ears. it’s funny.

so what does the cat get out of this ? hard to tell, a little exercise i guess, and that’s all good for a ten year old Puss. one thing’s for sure, she always comes back for more so i just can’t believe that there isn’t a fun element somewhere in there for her as well. after all, fluff isn’t very nutritious, not even to a whacky cat. you can be creative when it comes to the kind of fluff you use on the end of your leader. this is the special ‘high-adrenalin’ fly.

post note- this piece was written several years ago and PG has since gone to kitty heaven. i like to think she’s chasing angelfluff mouses.

Getting it Out There

here’s a little article i wrote for my friend Andy Baird and his great blogs ‘On The Burn’ and ‘Small Fly Funk’

it’s a first of a series of articles about fishing the little streams.

Getting it out There

part 1- The Approach

probably the biggest reason that holds back many fly anglers from fishing these little streams is the lack of ‘normal’ casting space.

basically, what we have are obstacles all around us in one way or an other, and if we want to present our fly correctly without getting it tangled or stuck into something at every cast, it will be a matter of adapting and using the available space that we do have.

here, i’ll try to point out a few casting techniques on getting the fly out there to the fish but also suggestions on small waters equipment and approach tactics that might help bring back the fun factor in these situations.

if you are used to fishing in wide-open spaces the first thing to do is to adopt a different mental approach and analysis to each situation.

fish in these streams rarely move around much and prefer to keep to areas that funnel food towards them and where they also feel safe.

this means we have a lot of time to decide on the best possible strategy to use in that particular situation.

in these situations the first decision i take is to decide exactly where i think a good fly presentation will be possible from without being noticed by the fish.

the actual cast needed will be decided once the actual fishing position is reached as the perspectives from where i first saw the fish and the one where the cast will be made may differ greatly. this is where having a good repertoire of casts comes handy.

will i be able to cast without lining the fish ?

do i need to cast over the shoulder or deliver on the back-cast ?

there’s a rock between me and the fish. can i throw a curve mend around it ?

there’s different currents going on. can i deal with this without inducing unwanted drag ?

those are just a few of the many possibilities that will come up in a day’s fishing. i find that they come up at each cast.

i also find that that’s what makes this kind of fishing so much fun, challenging and rewarding.

stealth in all its forms are very important in this close proximity activity.

camouflaged clothing is ideal. this is a stalk after all. outside of looking cool and being fashionably attractive… , camo clothing breaks up the human silhouette and enables to blend in better with the environing foliage. fishes are always on the look-out for predators and even if we put them back after having caught them, they don’t know this and consider us as deadly predators. we do need to move but the fish’s perception of our movements will not be as apparent compared to a ‘block’ of solid color. even if that block is of a subdued color. look into a wooded area and squint, you’ll notice that there are very few if any solid geometric blocks of one single color.

another great advantage to camo clothing is that it enables you to eat chocolate like a pig with no-one being the wiser !

rod flash is a big no-no and all of my rods have had a fine steel wool treatment. no need to dig in, just a gentle sanding of the top layer of varnish makes a big difference and does not affect its performance or durability in any way. watch an angler on a sunny day who hasn’t done this from a distance, all you’ll see is big streaks of flashing light. fish don’t like this at all and it’s one of the best ways to put them down.

as a side line, my Sage TCRs that had a shiny dried blood color now look like sanded wood. pretty cool !

some people believe that a flyline’s color is equally important and should also be subdued. i don’t, as i believe that the line should never be visible to the fish in the first place, whether its in the air or on the water. that can be tricky but i find it more important to know exactly where it is and what it is doing at all moments by being able to see it. aerial and on the water mends become pointless if you can’t see the line.

a ‘natural’ or darker colored line will blend in better with its surroundings in the air but will appear as a dark silhouette on the water’s surface when seen from the fish’s view and inversely for a lighter, more visible (to us) line. you chose. just as in fly selection, we usually don’t fish well if we don’t have entire confidence in the whole system.

we do need to move to be able to fish but these confined, close-up areas and those movements need to be as subtle and as slow as possible to not alert the fish. as noted earlier, this kind of fishing should be considered a stalk. vibrations that reach the fish emanate from walking on the bank or in the water. studded shoe soles can make scratching sounds underwater. hitting or making stones roll around while wading will have the same effect. talking loudly to a friend can be heard under water. rushing through the water causes ripples that propagate throughout the surface. as Roy Christie points out, an angler moving upstream should be going slow enough so that the ripples that are created don’t push up against the current. that’s pretty slow, specially in calm waters.

it’s always good to remember that senses under water are the same as the senses above water. specially when one considers that water propagates sound much easier than air and that the fish are in their own environment and that most animal’s senses are stronger than ours.

theses notions will of course apply to all water systems but the confined nature of tiny streams oblige us to be even more aware of all elements involved.

next time i’ll talk about specific equipment such as leaders, lines, rods and of course casting in these little streams.